In Mongolia, there are different types of religions such as Buddhism (53%) since the 16th century, Shamanism (in the north), Muslims in the West (Kazakh groups). The main religion is Buddhism or Lamaism, which is the Yellow Sect of Tibetan Buddhism. Until 16th century, shamanism, worshipping the Blue Sky, was the dominant religion in Mongolia. Lamaism was introduced in 1586 by the leader Altan Khan (1507–83) then it gained more popularity.
Tibetan Buddhism shared the common Buddhist goals of individual release from suffering and reincarnation.
At the beginning of the 20th century, Mongolia had hundreds of Buddhist monasteries and about 30 percent of all men were monks. Communists led an anti-religious campaign in the 1930s, more than 700 monasteries were destroyed and thousands of monks were killed.